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(Singulex) Enhanced Comprehensive Testing

Comprehensive testing is a useful tool for determining the risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease. This is a simple blood test that provides a better awareness and monitoring of these risk factors by measuring the important biomarkers present in blood. The biomarkers tested at Cardiovascular Interventions include: Cardiac Troponin-1 (cTnI), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-Alpha), Leptin, Adiponectin, Ferritin, Cortisol.

What are the biomarkers?

  1. Cardiac Troponin-1
    Cardiac Troponin-1 is a cardiac specific protein that regulates the calcium mediated action between actin and myosin.

The measurement of cardiac troponin-1 is highly sensitive and specific for showing cardiac muscle damage.

Elevated levels are found in acute disease states such as heart attack, acute coronary syndrome, and angina or associated with chronic disease states including stable coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac inflammation, chronic kidney disease, non-cardiac vascular disease, respiratory infections, and other severe infections.

This test is beneficial in detecting cardiac muscle damage in early stages and identifying those with risk for future cardiovascular events including heart attack, death, and heart failure.

Target value: <4.7 pg/mL

  • Interleukin-6Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a protein marker of inflammation produced as a response to any inflammation in the body to enhance the body’s immune system and protect against tissue damage.

    IL-6 also increases the synthesis of fibrinogen which is an important clotting agent.

    Clinically this test is useful in detecting clot formation and inflammation that can worsen or initiate atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis may result in vessel blockages, hypertension, and subsequent heart attack.

    There is a strong association between elevated IL-6 levels and the presence of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease.

    Target value: <4.6 pg/mL

  • Interleukin-17AAtherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease. IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory marker of inflammation which plays an important role in vascular remodeling and dysfunction.

    Elevated levels of IL-17A helps asses the associated risk of cardiovascular disease including heart attack and unstable angina.

    This test helps in management by aggressively treating the risk factors of atherosclerosis and reducing inflammation as much as possible for those at risk of developing or worsening cardiovascular disease.

    Target value: <2.0 pg/mL

  • Parathyroid HormoneA parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. PTH controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. This test is used to help identify abnormal calcium levels due to vitamin D deficiency.

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated levels of PTH which leads to abnormal cardiac pathology and pro-inflammatory effects that promote cardiac hypertrophy and vascular remodeling.

    Target valve: 15-65 pg/mL

  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-AlphaTumor necrosis factor-alpha is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation that is produced mainly by activated macrophages.

    Elevated levels can contribute to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    Elevated levels are associated with cardiovascular disease.

    Target value: <2.6 pg/mL

  • LeptinLeptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism. It is one of the most important fat derived hormones.

    High levels of leptin are associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Target value: 0.1- 64.2 ng/mL in women           0.2- 25.2 ng/mL in men

  • AdiponectinAdiponectin is a protein involved in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid breakdown.

    Adiponectin is secreted from adipose (fat) tissue into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma to many hormones.

    Decreased hormone levels may result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and/or metabolic syndrome.

    Target value: 2.0 – 16.5 µg/mL

  • FerritinFerritin is a protein which stores iron and has a regulated release. The amount of ferritin stored is proportional to the amount of iron stored.

    Even slight elevations of ferritin can be a precursor to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

    Target value: 13-150 ng/mL in women           30- 400 ng/mL in men

  • CortisolCortisol is a hormone that is produced from the adrenal glands that is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoids.

    The normal action of cortisol is to increase blood sugar; suppress the immune system; and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Cortisol has a direct effect on the cardiovascular system influencing the vascular function, atherogenesis, and vascular remodeling.

    Target value: 6.2 – 19.4 ng/dL (a.m.)           2.3 – 11.9 ng/dL (p.m.)


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